Sakane N, Oshima Y, Kotani K, Suganuma A, Takahashi K, Sato J, Suzuki S, Izumi K, Kato M, Noda M, Kuzuya H. (2021). Impact of telephone support programme using telemonitoring on stage of change towards healthy eating and active exercise in people with prediabetes. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 27(5), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X211010981
A study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone support program on healthy eating and exercise among adults with prediabetes. A total of 2607 participants (ages 20-65) with fasting plasma glucose level of 100-125 mg/dL was recruited from 43 health examination centers in Japan. The health examination centers were randomly assigned to a telephone support intervention based on stage of change framework or a control group that received health education newsletters. The intervention included healthcare providers and dieticians who assessed the participants’ lifestyle, health, and knowledge of diabetes. The providers and dieticians coached the participants through making goals, discussing the pros and cons of health behavior changes, identifying barriers to health behavior changes, and problem solving. The participants received the intervention for one year by telephone and five to six phone calls during the program. There are five stages of change: pre-contemplation (no intent to act), contemplation (intent to take action in next month), preparation (intent and some behavioral steps in this direction), action (behavior change for six months or less), and maintenance (behavior change for more than six months). The researchers collected participant data from a provided weight scale and pedometer monthly in both groups. The study found that the intervention significantly progressed the stage of change for healthy eating but not for active exercise. The intervention was most effective for participants at the contemplation stage relative to other stages, specifically on fasting plasma glucose level and blood pressure.