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MindReSolve is an evidence-based preventative e-intervention for anxiety and depression in young adults with elevated worry, rumination, and stress.

MindReSolve consists of six modules divided into three to four sessions per module. Each module takes about one hour to complete. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based module content includes psychoeducation, mood diaries, audio exercises, and video vignettes of university students sharing personal experiences of using MindReSolve. Each module reflects on previous modules, introduces new behavioral techniques, provides in-session self-directed exercises, and offers tips for real-life implementation. Behavior-change techniques draw on the Behavior Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy, including goals and planning, feedback and self-monitoring, shaping knowledge, social and emotional consequences, associative learning, behavior substitution and habit formation, identifying triggers, and self-belief. Activities in MindReSolve empower users to recognize signs of rumination and develop action plans in response to rumination triggers. An optional clinician-assisted component provides users with written feedback from a clinician trained in rumination-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (RFCBT) at the end of each completed session.

Link to commercial site here.


Theoretical Approach(es):
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Target Outcome(s):

Adolescents (ages 14-17)
Young Adults (18-30)


Not specified


Geographic Location(s):
Not specified

United Kingdom


  • Prevention of anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Topper M, Emmelkamp P, Watkins E, Ehring T. 2017. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 90: 123-136. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.015

    Summary: Researchers recruited students aged 15-22 years (n = 251) with elevated levels of worry and rumination to participate in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the digital MindReSolve intervention compared with in-person clinician delivery of the intervention and a waitlist control condition. Recruitment occurred through routine mental health screening procedures and study advertising at secondary schools in greater Amsterdam (n = 23) and through the social science departments of Amsterdam universities (n = 2). Individuals with a diagnosis of major depression or generalized anxiety disorder were not eligible to participate in the trial. Researchers randomized participants to a clinician-delivered group CBT-based intervention (n = 82), a MindReSolve CBT-based internet intervention (iCBT) (n = 84), or a waitlist control (n = 85). Participants completed 9 self-report questionnaires (measuring worry, rumination, depression, and anxiety symptoms) at baseline, 6 weeks (post-intervention), and 3- and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Both versions of the CBT-based intervention facilitated significant long-term reductions in symptoms of worry, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and these results were maintained at 12 months. At 12 months, 14.7% of MindReSolve participants and 15.3% of participants in the clinician-delivered CBT group met the criteria for depression (a 45% and 47% reduction, respectively, from baseline to 12-month follow-up), compared with 32.4% of individuals in the control who still met the criteria for depression. Only 16.0% of MindReSolve participants and 18.0% of participants in the CBT group met the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder at 12 months, while 42.2% of control participants continued to meet the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Take away: Preliminary results suggest MindReSolve offers long-term efficacy comparable to clinician-delivered group CBT in significantly reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression over 12 months.

  • Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression (RESPOND): Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for High-Ruminating University Students

    Cook L, Mostazir M, Watkins E. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2019. 21(5): e11349. doi: 10.2196/11349

    Summary: Researchers recruited university students aged 18-24 years (n = 235) with elevated worry and rumination in the United Kingdom to participate in a phase III randomized controlled efficacy trial. The trial sought to (I) determine whether MindReSolve (a clinician-assisted, internet-based rumination-focused cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (i-RFCBT) would reduce the incidence of major depression episodes relative to usual care over 15 months, and (II) explore the feasibility of MindReSolve without clinician assistance (self-help MindReSolve). Recruitment occurred through advertisements online and on university campuses with links to a study website. Researchers randomized participants to the MindReSolve i-RFCBT (n = 82), the self-help MindReSolve i-RFCBT (n = 76), or usual care (n = 77). Usual care participants could access any form of treatment necessary during the study. Participants completed questionnaires on symptoms of depression, anxiety, worry, and rumination at baseline, 3 months (post-intervention) and 6- and 15-month follow-ups. Researchers also conducted structured diagnostic interviews with intervention participants by telephone at 3 months and at the 6- and 15-month follow-ups. Participants completed symptom questionnaires during the phone interview, by email, or by mail. MindReSolve reduced risk of experiencing a major depressive episode by 34% relative to usual care over the 15-month study period. Among intervention participants with higher baseline stress (moderate or above), MindReSolve significantly reduced risk of experiencing a major depressive episode by 57% compared with usual care. MindReSolve participants also demonstrated significant short-to-medium term improvements in rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms. At 3 months, rumination symptoms had decreased significantly in the MindReSolve group, relative to usual care. At 6 months, MindResolve participants reported significantly reduced worry and depression symptoms, compared with usual care. These improvements were not maintained at 15 months. The self-help MindReSolve intervention reduced risk of developing a major depressive episode by 36%, relative to usual care, but researchers did not conduct formal significance analyses for the self-help MindReSolve intervention. 

    Take away: MindReSolve appeared to reduce onset of major depressive episodes in at-risk young adults with elevated levels of worry and rumination. Future research could formally evaluate the efficacy of the self-help MindReSolve intervention in prevention of major depressive episodes. If the effect sizes in symptom reduction observed in this study are replicated in a formal trial, the self-help MindReSolve intervention may have potential as a preventative intervention for depression.