Chow PI, Fua K, Huang Y, et al. (2017). Using mobile sensing to test clinical models of depression, social anxiety, state affect, and social isolation among college students. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 19(3): e62. doi: 10.2196/jmir.6820
Researchers used emails and a study portal to recruit 63 undergraduate students who owned Android phones to compare trait and state affect to time spent at home. At baseline, participants completed assessments of depression and social anxiety. After completing baseline assessments, participants downloaded an app that administered up to six daily ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of affect during the 4-hour period prior to the EMA and continuous collected location data. Data collection lasted for two weeks. Social anxiety was related to more time spent at home during the 4-hour period assessed in an EMA and during the day (10AM to 6PM) as a whole and to a greater likelihood of spending more time at home during an EMA period. Increases in negative affect were related to more time spent at home during the EMA period. Increases in positive affect were related to less time spent at home during the EMA period. Higher negative affect was related to spending more time at home that day. Higher positive affect was related to a lower likelihood of being at home and to less time spent at home the day before. Unexpectedly, researchers found that higher levels of depression were related to a lower likelihood of being at home and that higher positive affect was related to more time spent at home the next day.